Other raw materials

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Amber is fossilized resin and in some deposits it is possible to see bugs which are preserved within the amber. Amber is soft and can easily be shaped. It was often used for ornaments and amulets.

Amber is found in many parts of the world, but it is mainly the baltic region that has supplied Europe and the Middle East with this raw material.

Amber is fossilized resin and in some deposits numerous insects and spiders are preserved, complete, inside pieces of amber.

Amber is rare but insects such as this are occasionally seen for sale as jewelry. Lepkjtis is a member of the Diptera which includes the true flies. Insect in amber (Leptis Oligocene).
(Hamilton et al 19761976, 292)


Ochre is a pigment which mainly contains iron oxide. In Norway iron oxide is found by the lump in podsol profiles, bogs and mud rich soils. Ochre gets a characteristic red-brown color when it is burnt. Ochre lumps can be crushed and rubbed into a fine grained powder. Applied with a glue of some kind (animal fat or blod) the powder can be used as body paint.

Ochre has been found in contexts in which it has been interpreted as ritual usage, for example graves. It is also used as a pigment in paleolithic cave paintings and in association with the treatment of skin.

A native earth consisting of hydrated peroxide of iron with clay in various proportions, used as a pigment. First found in association with Homo erectus at Olduvai gorge and has been found in many cultures throughout the Stone Age period. It has been found in many contexts, particularly in burials where it is interpreted as having a ritual function, used as a pigment in Palaeolithic cave paintings, and in association with hide processing. (see Wreschner 1980)