Points

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Projectile points are tools that were hafted as points in arrows.
There are many types e.g.: single-edged points, transverse points, tanged points, bifacial points.

 

Unifacial points

 

Bifacial points

 

Bifacially retouched points are projectile points that are retouched on both surfaces, often with invasive retouch covering most of both surfaces. They are divided into types by shape. e.g.. bifacial leaf-shaped point, bifacial triangular point,bifacial lanceolate point. They may be tanged or have barbs, or both, as in a bifacial barbed and tanged point.


Bifacially retouched points are projectile points that are retouched on both surfaces, often with invasive retouch covering most of both surfaces. They are divided into types by shape, for example, bifacial leaf-shaped point, bifacial triangular point and bifacial lanceolate point. They may be tanged or have barbs, or both (Helskog et al. 1976:30-33). Bifacially retouched points are produced by pressure technique.

Tanged points


Tanged points are projectile points that have a tang at one end to facilitate hafting. A tang is made by retouching one, or more usually both edges, in order to create a projection that is thinner than the width of the blank. This projection is then fitted into the arrow shaft.


Ahrensburgian points

Ahrensburgian points are small tanged points with a retouched tang in the distal end of a blade. The points are normally obliquely retouched (Vang Petersen 1993). Ahrensburgian points are characteristic of the late paleolithic Ahrensburg culture.

Bromme/Lyngby points

Bromme-/Lyngby points are large tanged points made on big blades. The tang is manufactured in the proximal end of the blade where the bulb of force often is intact (Vang Petersen 1993). Bromme-/Lyngby points can be interpreted as spear points.

 

A-points

A-points are made on a blade with a retouched tang in the proximal end and a natural point in its distal end. A-points are further grouped into the categories A1-A3 based on the direction of the retouch from the dorsal or ventral side of the point. A-points are normally viewed as Neolithic.

A1 points

are projectile points that are made from naturally pointed blade blanks that have no, or little, retouch except for the tang which is created by direct retouch.

A2 points

are projectile points. They are most common in the production of tangs for projectile points, particularly in the A2 and B types of Neolithic typology (Helskog et al.1976:26[1]).

A2 points

are projectile points. They are most common in the production of tangs for projectile points, particularly in the A2 and B types of Neolithic typology (Helskog et al.1976:26[1]). Tanged points- A2 have alternate retouch position

A3 points

are simple tanged points made on blades. Only the tang and occasionally the point are retouched. The tang is made by inverse abrupt retouch.
A-points are normally attributed to the Early Neolithic. 

B points

A B-point is a tanged point with retouched edges and/or partly invasive retouch on the ventral and dorsal side. The retouch does not meet in a ridge in the middle section, but let parts of the surface remain unretouched (Helskog et al. 1976:30).

C points

A C-point is a tanged point with a triangular cross-section in which the dorsal side it totally retouched and meet in a ridge. The ventral side is retouched too, but not totally (Helskog et al. 1976:30).

D points

A D-point is a tanged point with a triangular cross-section totally retouched on both the ventral and the dorsal side (Helskog et al. 1976:30).

Barbed and tanged point

Barbed and tanged points are bifacial projectile points
that are retouched on both surfaces with barbs and tang.

 
Other bifacial retouched points with tange


Bifacially retouched points with tang, but which lacks a marked ridge and barbs (Helskog et al. 1976:30).

Points without tange

Single-edged point

Single-edged points are projectile points that have two retouched edges. The edges are formed by abrupt retouch and are usually modified along one full edge and are diverging from the base to an edge. The shortest retouched edge must be < 60 % of the longest retouched side. (Helskog et al.1976:25[1]).


Transverse point

Transverse points are projectile points that do not form a point but have a straight or angled "cutting" edge. They are often made from a medial section of a blade or bladelet so that the "cutting" edge is the original edge of the blank. i.e. they are oriented transversely to the axis of percussion.


The transverse point is made from the ventral side of the blade. The bulb of force is removed and the knapper works his way into the blade until an oblique, convex breakeage occur on both sides. Thus the point is equipped with one broad edge on one of the sides of the blade and a thin shaft end on the other. The point is finally shaped with a pressure flaker, in part by pressure and in part by using the hammerstone as an anvil and the pressure flaker as a hammer. The width of the transverse point should correspond to the witdh of the arrow shaft (Bay og Staal 2003:26-74).


Bifacial leaf-shaped point

Bifacial leaf-shaped points are bifacial projectile points that are retouched on both surfaces and shaped like a leaf

Bifacial triangular point

Bifacial triangular points are bifacial projectile points that are retouched on both surfaces and triangular in shape. These points can have a straight, concave and convex base.
 

Bifacial lanceolate point

Bifacial lanceolate points are bifacial projectile points that are retouched on both surfaces and lanceolate i.e. elongated leaf shaped. These points can have a straight, concave and convex base.

  

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Helskog, K., Indrelid, S., and Mikkelsen, E. 1976. Morfologisk klassifisering av slåtte steinartefakter. Særtykk fra Universitetets Oldsaksamlings årbok 1972-1974. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Helskog_1976" defined multiple times with different content