Difference between revisions of "Mandatory Topic 1 (for MSc degree)"

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(Radioactivity, radionuclides and radiation)
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=== Aims ===
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=== Aim ===
  
To teach NRC students the basic knowledge in nuclear physics in order to understand the nature<br>of radioactivity, reasons for stability/instability of nuclides, modes of radioactive decay<br>processes, types of radiation emitted in radioactive decay processes and the rate of radioactive<br>decay.<br>Topics:<br>- structure of atom and nucleus, nucleons<br>- nuclides, radionuclides, isotopes, isobars, nuclide charts<br>- types and origin of radionuclides (natural decay series, primary primordial radionuclides,<br>secondary natural radionuclides, cosmogenic radionuclides, artificial radionuclides,<br>formation and occurrence)<br>- stability of nuclei (stable nuclides vs. radionuclides, masses on nucleons, mass deficiency,<br>binding energy, binding energy per nucleon, proton to neutron ratio, energy valley –<br>semiempirical equation of mass – beta parabola, fission, fusion)<br>- modes of radioactive decay<br>o fission (process, spontaneous vs. induced, energetics, formation of fission products,<br>fission yields, fissionable/fissile, nature of fission products)<br>o alpha decay (process, energetics, alpha recoil, decay to daughter’s ground state,<br>decay to daughter’s exited state, formation of alpha spectrum)<br>o beta decay (processes in beta minus decay, positron decay and electron capture,<br>energetics, beta recoil, neutrino/antineutrino, distribution of decay energy, formation<br>of beta spectrum, beta parabola for odd/even nuclides, secondary processes (gamma<br>decay, formation of Auger electrons and X-rays, annihilation of positrons)<br>o internal transition (gamma decay, internal conversion, energetics, gamma recoil,<br>metastable isomeric states, formation of gamma spectrum)<br>- rate of radioactive decay, half-life, activity units, activity concentrations vs. specific activity,<br>activity vs. count rate, determination of half-lives, equilibria in successive decay processes<br>- isotopic exchange - isotope effects<br>- principles and uses of nuclear power reactors<br>
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To teach NRC students the basic knowledge in nuclear physics in order to understand the nature<br>of radioactivity, reasons for stability/instability of nuclides, modes of radioactive decay<br>processes, types of radiation emitted in radioactive decay processes and the rate of radioactive<br>decay
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=== Suptopics ===
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*structure of atom and nucleus, nucleons
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*nuclides, radionuclides, isotopes, isobars, nuclide charts
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*types and origin of radionuclides (natural decay series, primary primordial radionuclides,<br>secondary natural radionuclides, cosmogenic radionuclides, artificial radionuclides,<br>formation and occurrence)
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*stability of nuclei (stable nuclides vs. radionuclides, masses on nucleons, mass deficiency,<br>binding energy, binding energy per nucleon, proton to neutron ratio, energy valley –<br>semiempirical equation of mass – beta parabola, fission, fusion)
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*modes of radioactive decay<br>o fission (process, spontaneous vs. induced, energetics, formation of fission products,<br>fission yields, fissionable/fissile, nature of fission products)<br>o alpha decay (process, energetics, alpha recoil, decay to daughter’s ground state,<br>decay to daughter’s exited state, formation of alpha spectrum)<br>o beta decay (processes in beta minus decay, positron decay and electron capture,<br>energetics, beta recoil, neutrino/antineutrino, distribution of decay energy, formation<br>of beta spectrum, beta parabola for odd/even nuclides, secondary processes (gamma<br>decay, formation of Auger electrons and X-rays, annihilation of positrons)<br>o internal transition (gamma decay, internal conversion, energetics, gamma recoil,<br>metastable isomeric states, formation of gamma spectrum)<br>- rate of radioactive decay, half-life, activity units, activity concentrations vs. specific activity,<br>activity vs. count rate, determination of half-lives, equilibria in successive decay processes<br>- isotopic exchange - isotope effects<br>- principles and uses of nuclear power reactors<br>

Revision as of 21:32, 11 September 2012

Radioactivity, radionuclides and radiation

– principles of nuclear physics to radiochemists


Aim

To teach NRC students the basic knowledge in nuclear physics in order to understand the nature
of radioactivity, reasons for stability/instability of nuclides, modes of radioactive decay
processes, types of radiation emitted in radioactive decay processes and the rate of radioactive
decay


Suptopics

  • structure of atom and nucleus, nucleons
  • nuclides, radionuclides, isotopes, isobars, nuclide charts
  • types and origin of radionuclides (natural decay series, primary primordial radionuclides,
    secondary natural radionuclides, cosmogenic radionuclides, artificial radionuclides,
    formation and occurrence)
  • stability of nuclei (stable nuclides vs. radionuclides, masses on nucleons, mass deficiency,
    binding energy, binding energy per nucleon, proton to neutron ratio, energy valley –
    semiempirical equation of mass – beta parabola, fission, fusion)
  • modes of radioactive decay
    o fission (process, spontaneous vs. induced, energetics, formation of fission products,
    fission yields, fissionable/fissile, nature of fission products)
    o alpha decay (process, energetics, alpha recoil, decay to daughter’s ground state,
    decay to daughter’s exited state, formation of alpha spectrum)
    o beta decay (processes in beta minus decay, positron decay and electron capture,
    energetics, beta recoil, neutrino/antineutrino, distribution of decay energy, formation
    of beta spectrum, beta parabola for odd/even nuclides, secondary processes (gamma
    decay, formation of Auger electrons and X-rays, annihilation of positrons)
    o internal transition (gamma decay, internal conversion, energetics, gamma recoil,
    metastable isomeric states, formation of gamma spectrum)
    - rate of radioactive decay, half-life, activity units, activity concentrations vs. specific activity,
    activity vs. count rate, determination of half-lives, equilibria in successive decay processes
    - isotopic exchange - isotope effects
    - principles and uses of nuclear power reactors