Mandatory Topic 3 (for MSc degree)

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Aims:
To teach the students basic knowledge on interaction processes of radiation with matter as a
basis for radiation detection, basic instrumentation in radiation detection, detector types and
formation of electric pulses in them, interpretation of various spectra, energy resolution, energy
and efficiency calibrations. Since ICP-MS is becoming a standard method for the measurement
3
of many radionuclides basics on mass spectrometric measurement of radionuclides should also
be at least shortly covered.
Topics:
- interaction processes of radiation with matter (ionization, scattering, excitation, formation of
electromagnetic radiation, nuclear reaction)
o alpha
o beta
o gamma
o neutrons
- basic instrumentation in radiation measurements (detector, preamplifier, amplifier, ADC,
MCA)
- pulse counting vs. spectrometry
- pulse rate 􀃆 counting efficiency 􀃆 activity
- factors affecting counting efficiency (detector efficiency, absorption, geometry, selfabsorption,
backscattering, dead-time)
- energy resolution
- detectors for radiation measurement:
o gas ionization detectors
o solid and liquid scintillators
o semiconductor detectors
- statistics and error calculations in radiometric measurements
- interpretation of gamma, alpha, beta and X-ray spectra
- energy and efficiency calibrations
- liquid scintillation counting
- radiation imaging (autoradiography, fission and alpha track counting etc)
- background formation and subtraction
- quality control in radiation measurements
- mass spectrometric measurement of radionuclides

Teaching Material from NukWik