Mandatory Topic 3 (for MSc degree)

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Detection and measurement of radiation

Aims

To teach the students basic knowledge on interaction processes of radiation with matter as a basis for radiation detection, basic instrumentation in radiation detection, detector types and formation of electric pulses in them, interpretation of various spectra, energy resolution, energy and efficiency calibrations. Since ICP-MS is becoming a standard method for the measurement of many radionuclides basics on mass spectrometric measurement of radionuclides should also be at least shortly covered.


Subtopics

  • interaction processes of radiation with matter (ionization, scattering, excitation, formation of electromagnetic radiation, nuclear reaction)
    o alpha
    • beta
      o gamma
    • neutrons
  • basic instrumentation in radiation measurements (detector, preamplifier, amplifier, ADC,
    MCA)
    - pulse counting vs. spectrometry
    - pulse rate 􀃆 counting efficiency 􀃆 activity
    - factors affecting counting efficiency (detector efficiency, absorption, geometry, selfabsorption,
    backscattering, dead-time)
    - energy resolution
    - detectors for radiation measurement:
    o gas ionization detectors
    o solid and liquid scintillators
    o semiconductor detectors
    - statistics and error calculations in radiometric measurements
    - interpretation of gamma, alpha, beta and X-ray spectra
    - energy and efficiency calibrations
    - liquid scintillation counting
    - radiation imaging (autoradiography, fission and alpha track counting etc)
    - background formation and subtraction
    - quality control in radiation measurements
    - mass spectrometric measurement of radionuclides

Teaching Material from NukWik