Mandatory Topic 6 (for MSc degree)

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Exercises (laboratory and calculation exercises) (at least 10 cu)


Calculation exercises

Aim: To give the students skills to calculate activities, their uncertainties, calculate or estimate
radiation doses, calculate irradiation yields and to use nuclide charts / tables of nuclides.

Topics

  • use of internet nuclide chart / table of nuclides
  • calculation of activities based on half-life data
  • calculations of irradiation yields based of cross sections and projectile flux
  • calculation and measurement of gamma irradiation dose from a point source
  • calculation of required shielding for radiation protection
  • uncertainty calculations in activity measurements
  • conversion of count rates to activities


Laboratory exercises

 
Aim: To give the students skills for safe handling of radionuclides and sealed sources and to safely
dispose of radioactive waste from radionuclide laboratories, use of radiation dose meters and
instruments to detect contamination, basic skills to detect and measure gamma and beta
radiation using common radiation measurement techniques and to separate radionuclides from
aqueous and solid samples using common radiochemical separation methods.

Topics

  • detection of planar contamination for radiation safety
  • use of radiation dose meters for radiation safety to measure total dose and dose rates
  • measurement of radiation with a Geiger tube (absorption of beta radiation etc)
  • measurement of radiation with a LSC
  • measurement of radiation with a gamma spectrometer - interpretation of gamma spectra
  • separations of radionuclides by using
    • precipitation/coprecipitation
    • ion exchange chromatography
    • solvent extraction and/or extraction chromatography

Recommended laboratory exercises

Below a more comprehensive list of laboratory exercises is given as a recommendation.

  • detection of planar contamination for radiation safety
  • use of radiation dose meters for radiation safety to measure total dose and dose rates
  • measurement of radiation with a Geiger tube (e.g. determination of absorption curve for beta radiation, determination of dead-time, effect of counting geometry on observed counting efficiency)
  • determination of half-life (determination of the half-life of a short-lived radionuclide, such as137mBa, obtained from a generator)
  • single channel exercise with a solid scintillation detector (measurement of the gamma spectrum of a gamma emitting radionuclide, such as 137Cs, measurement of a standard and an unknown sample on the selected peak region, calculation of the activity of the unknown sample, determination of energy resolution)
  • gamma spectrometry with a solid scintillation detector (energy calibration, determination of a sample containing few unknown radionuclides, identification of these radionuclides, interpretation of the gamma spectrum)
  • gamma spectrometry with a semiconductor detector (energy calibration, determination of a sample containing unknown radionuclides, identification of these radionuclides, interpretation of the gamma spectrum)
  • alpha spectrometry (separation of an alpha emitter from environmental or waste sample using radiochemical separation techniques, preparation of the counting source, measurement of the alpha spectrum, calculation of the activity)
  • beta counting with LSC (quenching curve determination, separation of a beta emitter from environmental or waste sample using radiochemical separation techniques, preparation of the counting source, measurement of the sample for the activity determination)
  • radiochemical separations using precipitation, ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography
    • separation of beta emitting radionuclides (e.g. 90Sr)
    • separation of alpha emitting radionuclides (e.g. 234,235,238U)
    • separation of EC decaying radionuclides (e.g. 55Fe)