Difference between revisions of "Practical Exercise For Liquid Scintillation"
From mn/safe/nukwik
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====== Written and developed by [http://www.mn.uio.no/kjemi/personer/vit/torbjor/index.html Prof. Tor Bjørnstad] (IFE/UiO) ======  ====== Written and developed by [http://www.mn.uio.no/kjemi/personer/vit/torbjor/index.html Prof. Tor Bjørnstad] (IFE/UiO) ======  
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The students are divided first into two groups. Each group follows the procedure below.  The students are divided first into two groups. Each group follows the procedure below.  
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#Determination of the counting efficiency of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C<br>a. Prepare one standard sample (unquenched) for each of the two radionuclides <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C in two separate liquid scintillation vials. This is done by extracting an aliquote of 1.00 mL from the respective mother solutions organized by the laboratory assistant into the two vials. Add 10 ml scintillation cocktail to each vial and shake to a homogeneous solution. <br>b. Count the standard samples on the Beckman LS counter in the MCA mode. Define channel 1 as the counting window covering the <sup>3</sup>H spectrum, and channel 2 as that part of the <sup>14</sup>C spectrum which does not overlap with the <sup>3</sup>H spectrum. For <sup>14</sup>C record the counting rate in both channels.<br>c. Determine the counting efficiency <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>CH1</sub></span>(<sup>3</sup>H), <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>H1</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C), <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>CH2</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C) and <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>CH1 + CH2</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C) from Eqn.2. in [[Interfering processes]] <br>d. Record (plot) the scintillation spectra for the two radionuclides.  #Determination of the counting efficiency of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C<br>a. Prepare one standard sample (unquenched) for each of the two radionuclides <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C in two separate liquid scintillation vials. This is done by extracting an aliquote of 1.00 mL from the respective mother solutions organized by the laboratory assistant into the two vials. Add 10 ml scintillation cocktail to each vial and shake to a homogeneous solution. <br>b. Count the standard samples on the Beckman LS counter in the MCA mode. Define channel 1 as the counting window covering the <sup>3</sup>H spectrum, and channel 2 as that part of the <sup>14</sup>C spectrum which does not overlap with the <sup>3</sup>H spectrum. For <sup>14</sup>C record the counting rate in both channels.<br>c. Determine the counting efficiency <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>CH1</sub></span>(<sup>3</sup>H), <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>H1</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C), <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>CH2</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C) and <span class="texhtml">ε</span><sub>CH1 + CH2</sub>(<sup>14</sup>C) from Eqn.2. in [[Interfering processes]] <br>d. Record (plot) the scintillation spectra for the two radionuclides.  
#Determination of unknown concentrations of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C in mixture<br>e. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown and unquenched mixture of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C. Prepare a sample as above. <br>f. Count the sample and calculate the concentration (in Bq) of both components by using the counting efficiencies determined above. <br>g. Plot the composite spectrum and explain the shape.  #Determination of unknown concentrations of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C in mixture<br>e. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown and unquenched mixture of <sup>3</sup>H and <sup>14</sup>C. Prepare a sample as above. <br>f. Count the sample and calculate the concentration (in Bq) of both components by using the counting efficiencies determined above. <br>g. Plot the composite spectrum and explain the shape.  
−  #Recording of a quench correction curve<br>h. Produce a quench correction curve for <sup>14</sup>C as follows: Obtain 10 scintillation vials and label them from 110. To each vial add 1.00 mL <sup>14</sup>Csolution and 10 mL scintillation cocktail.<br>i. To the 10 samples sequentially 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 140, 180, 230 and 300 <span class="texhtml">μ</span>L of the chemical quencher CCl<sub>4</sub>.<br>j. Count the samples, and record the counting rates in CH1 and CH2 for all samples.<br>k. Calculate the counting efficiency <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>CH  +  #Recording of a quench correction curve<br>h. Produce a quench correction curve for <sup>14</sup>C as follows: Obtain 10 scintillation vials and label them from 110. To each vial add 1.00 mL <sup>14</sup>Csolution and 10 mL scintillation cocktail.<br>i. To the 10 samples sequentially 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 140, 180, 230 and 300 <span class="texhtml">μ</span>L of the chemical quencher CCl<sub>4</sub>.<br>j. Count the samples, and record the counting rates in CH1 and CH2 for all samples.<br>k. Calculate the counting efficiency <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>CH'''1 + '''CH2</sub></span>(<sup>14</sup>C) as a function of the ratio R<sub>CH2</sub>/R<sub>CH1</sub> and plot the curve. <br>l. Plot one of the quenched spectra and compare the shape of this to the shape of the nonquenched curve. 
#Determination of unknown concentration of <sup>14</sup>C in a quenched sample<br>m. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown amount of <sup>14</sup>C in a 10 mL measuring flask. Dilute with the appropriate liquid to exactly 10 ml. <br>n. Prepare a counting sample as above and count. <br>o. Determine the concentration (Bq) of <sup>14</sup>C by the two methods ''Channel Ratio'' method and ''Internal Standard'' method. Compare the results.  #Determination of unknown concentration of <sup>14</sup>C in a quenched sample<br>m. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown amount of <sup>14</sup>C in a 10 mL measuring flask. Dilute with the appropriate liquid to exactly 10 ml. <br>n. Prepare a counting sample as above and count. <br>o. Determine the concentration (Bq) of <sup>14</sup>C by the two methods ''Channel Ratio'' method and ''Internal Standard'' method. Compare the results.  
−  ===== <span class="texhtml">α</span>LSC =====  +  ===== <span class="texhtml">α</span>LSC ===== 
The procedure will be described later.  The procedure will be described later.  
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−   Counting efficiency CH1: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H''1</sub></span><br><br>  +   Counting efficiency CH1: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H'''''<b>1</b></sub></span>'''<br><br>''' 
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−   Counting efficiency CH2: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H''2</sub></span><br>  +   Counting efficiency CH2: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H'''''<b>2</b></sub></span>'''<br>''' 
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 <br>   <br>  
    
−   Total counting efficiency in CH1+CH2: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H''1 + ''C''''H''2</sub></span><br>  +   Total counting efficiency in CH1+CH2: <span class="texhtml">ε<sub>''C''''H'''''<b>1 + ''C'''</b>''H''2</sub></span><br> 
 <br>   <br>  
 <br>   <br>  
}  }  
−  On the spectra plots indicate upper and lower limit for CH1 and CH2.<br>  +  On the spectra plots indicate upper and lower limit for CH1 and CH2.<br> 
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+  [[Category:Laboratory_exercise]][[Category:Radio_chemistry]][[Category:Alpha_Detector]][[Category:Scintillation_Detector]][[Category:Beta_Detector]] 
Revision as of 10:16, 28 June 2012
Contents
Written and developed by Prof. Tor Bjørnstad (IFE/UiO)
The students are divided first into two groups. Each group follows the procedure below.
Laboratory Procedure
 Determination of the counting efficiency of ^{3}H and ^{14}C
a. Prepare one standard sample (unquenched) for each of the two radionuclides ^{3}H and ^{14}C in two separate liquid scintillation vials. This is done by extracting an aliquote of 1.00 mL from the respective mother solutions organized by the laboratory assistant into the two vials. Add 10 ml scintillation cocktail to each vial and shake to a homogeneous solution.
b. Count the standard samples on the Beckman LS counter in the MCA mode. Define channel 1 as the counting window covering the ^{3}H spectrum, and channel 2 as that part of the ^{14}C spectrum which does not overlap with the ^{3}H spectrum. For ^{14}C record the counting rate in both channels.
c. Determine the counting efficiency ε_{CH1}(^{3}H), ε_{H1}(^{14}C), ε_{CH2}(^{14}C) and ε_{CH1 + CH2}(^{14}C) from Eqn.2. in Interfering processes
d. Record (plot) the scintillation spectra for the two radionuclides.  Determination of unknown concentrations of ^{3}H and ^{14}C in mixture
e. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown and unquenched mixture of ^{3}H and ^{14}C. Prepare a sample as above.
f. Count the sample and calculate the concentration (in Bq) of both components by using the counting efficiencies determined above.
g. Plot the composite spectrum and explain the shape.  Recording of a quench correction curve
h. Produce a quench correction curve for ^{14}C as follows: Obtain 10 scintillation vials and label them from 110. To each vial add 1.00 mL ^{14}Csolution and 10 mL scintillation cocktail.
i. To the 10 samples sequentially 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 140, 180, 230 and 300 μL of the chemical quencher CCl_{4}.
j. Count the samples, and record the counting rates in CH1 and CH2 for all samples.
k. Calculate the counting efficiency ε_{CH1 + CH2}(^{14}C) as a function of the ratio R_{CH2}/R_{CH1} and plot the curve.
l. Plot one of the quenched spectra and compare the shape of this to the shape of the nonquenched curve.  Determination of unknown concentration of ^{14}C in a quenched sample
m. Obtain from the laboratory assistant an unknown amount of ^{14}C in a 10 mL measuring flask. Dilute with the appropriate liquid to exactly 10 ml.
n. Prepare a counting sample as above and count.
o. Determine the concentration (Bq) of ^{14}C by the two methods Channel Ratio method and Internal Standard method. Compare the results.
αLSC
The procedure will be described later.
Reporting Schemes ans results
Number of counts S_{b} 

Counting time (min) 

counting rate R_{b} (cpm 


CH1 
CH1 
Upper limit (keV) 


Lower limit (keV) 


Description 
^{ 3}H 
^{ 14}C 
Applied Counting Program 


Counting rate CH1: R_{CH1} (backgroundcorrected cpm) 


Counting rate CH2: RCH2 (backgroundcorrected cpm) 


Disintegration rate standard (dpm) 


Counting efficiency CH1: ε_{C'H1} 


Counting efficiency CH2: ε_{C'H2} 


Total counting efficiency in CH1+CH2: ε_{C''H1 + CH2} 


On the spectra plots indicate upper and lower limit for CH1 and CH2.