# Difference between revisions of "Problem set 4"

(Created page with "= Masses and Binding Energy = <br> <br> '''1:''' For this exercise the mass excess is used. The needed values are:<br> *n: 8071.3171 keV *<sup>1</sup>H: 7288.97050 keV *<sup>...") |
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− | = Masses and Binding Energy = | + | = Masses and Binding Energy = |

− | <br> | + | <br> |

− | <br> | + | <br> |

− | '''1:''' For this exercise the mass excess is used. The needed values are:<br> | + | '''1:''' For this exercise the mass excess is used. The needed values are:<br> |

− | *n: 8071.3171 keV | + | *n: 8071.3171 keV |

− | *<sup>1</sup>H: 7288.97050 keV | + | *<sup>1</sup>H: 7288.97050 keV |

− | *<sup>4</sup>He: 2424.91656 keV | + | *<sup>4</sup>He: 2424.91656 keV |

− | *<sup>56</sup>Fe: -60605.4 keV | + | *<sup>56</sup>Fe: -60605.4 keV |

− | *<sup>142</sup>Ce: -84583 keV | + | *<sup>142</sup>Ce: -84583 keV |

*<sup>238</sup>U: 47308.9 keV | *<sup>238</sup>U: 47308.9 keV | ||

− | more values can be found at [http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp] | + | more values can be found at [http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp] |

− | #Calculate the mass of the following nucleides: n, <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>56</sup>Fe, <sup>142</sup>Ce and <sup>238</sup>U | + | #Calculate the mass of the following nucleides: n, <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>56</sup>Fe, <sup>142</sup>Ce and <sup>238</sup>U |

− | #Which of these nuclieds is the most stable. | + | #Which of these nuclieds is the most stable. |

− | #Assume that 1.00 kg <sup>2</sup>H fuse to give pure <sup>4</sup>He. What is the change in mass, what is the amount of energy produced (Mev and kWh) | + | #Assume that 1.00 kg <sup>2</sup>H fuse to give pure <sup>4</sup>He. What is the change in mass, what is the amount of energy produced (Mev and kWh) |

− | #Assume 1.00 kg<sup>233</sup>U fission spontaniusly and that the products only are <sup>92</sup>Rb and <sup>128</sup>Cs and 3 netruons per fission. What is the change in mass and what is the energy produced | + | #Assume 1.00 kg<sup>233</sup>U fission spontaniusly and that the products only are <sup>92</sup>Rb and <sup>128</sup>Cs and 3 netruons per fission. What is the change in mass and what is the energy produced |

#Which form of energy is the most importan with fission? Is it radiation or some other form of energy? | #Which form of energy is the most importan with fission? Is it radiation or some other form of energy? | ||

− | <br> | + | <br> |

− | '''2:''' Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 24 Mg by using a table or database for atomic mass excess.<br> | + | '''2:''' Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 24 Mg by using a table or database for atomic mass excess.<br> |

− | <br>'''3:''' What is the ratio between the nuclear binding energy and the electron binding energy for <sup>23</sup>Na when the ionisation potential of natrium is 5.14 V?<br> | + | <br>'''3:''' What is the ratio between the nuclear binding energy and the electron binding energy for <sup>23</sup>Na when the ionisation potential of natrium is 5.14 V?<br> |

− | <br>'''4:''' Use Einsteins formula and calculate the mass in MeV of the following particles:<br> | + | <br>'''4:''' Use Einsteins formula and calculate the mass in MeV of the following particles:<br> |

− | #A neutron. | + | #A neutron. |

− | #A electron. | + | #A electron. |

#The atomic mass unit “u”. | #The atomic mass unit “u”. | ||

+ | <br> | ||

+ | '''5:''' Calculate the average binding energy, given in MeV of the nucleons in the following nuclei:<br> | ||

− | + | #<sup>40</sup>Ca with mass 29.9627 u. | |

− | + | #<sup>56</sup>Fe with mass 55.9352 u. | |

− | #<sup>40</sup>Ca with mass 29.9627 u. | ||

− | #<sup>56</sup>Fe with mass 55.9352 u. | ||

#<sup>208</sup>Pb with mass 207.9775 u. | #<sup>208</sup>Pb with mass 207.9775 u. | ||

+ | <br> | ||

+ | '''6:''' Assume that a <sup>233</sup>U nucleon fission and you get a <sup>131</sup>Xe nucleus and a <sup>101</sup>Ru nucleus and 3 netruons. What is the energy ?<br> | ||

− | + | *235U: 40.916 MeV. | |

+ | *131Xe: -88.421 MeV. | ||

+ | *101Ru: -87.952 MeV. | ||

+ | *neutron: 8.071 MeV. | ||

− | + | <br> | |

− | + | ||

− | + | '''7:''' Assume that by fission of uranium we get a energy of 200 MeV per nucleus. How far can you drive a car with 1 g of <sup>235</sup>U as fuel. When a car uses aproximatly, unless american, 1L of gasoline (density 0.70 g/cm^3) for every 10 km? The heat of burning for catan is 5500kj/mole and a gasoline engine can use 18% of the energy. | |

− | + | ||

+ | <br>'''8:''' calculate the ammount of energy between a reaction of hydrogen and oxygen compare the energy with that of creation of He from neutrons and hydrogen (proton+electron).<br>DeltaG for H_2O is -237 kJ/mol and 0.0303 u is liberated when two protons two neutrons and two electronse fuse to a He-atom. | ||

+ | <br>'''9:''' Determine if fusion of deuterium to helium gives more or less energy per gram than fission of uranium. | ||

+ | <br>'''10:''' explain why we never find more than one stable nuclide in a isobarchain of odd nummber but in a isobarchain of even number it is possible to find more. | ||

− | ''' | + | <br>'''11:''' explain where we can find nuclides that desintergates with both beta+ and beta-. In addition explain why they have to be nuclei with odd proton and odd neutron.<br><br> |

## Revision as of 11:29, 18 June 2012

# Masses and Binding Energy

**1:** For this exercise the mass excess is used. The needed values are:

- n: 8071.3171 keV
^{1}H: 7288.97050 keV^{4}He: 2424.91656 keV^{56}Fe: -60605.4 keV^{142}Ce: -84583 keV^{238}U: 47308.9 keV

more values can be found at http://ie.lbl.gov/toi2003/MassSearch.asp

- Calculate the mass of the following nucleides: n,
^{1}H,^{56}Fe,^{142}Ce and^{238}U - Which of these nuclieds is the most stable.
- Assume that 1.00 kg
^{2}H fuse to give pure^{4}He. What is the change in mass, what is the amount of energy produced (Mev and kWh) - Assume 1.00 kg
^{233}U fission spontaniusly and that the products only are^{92}Rb and^{128}Cs and 3 netruons per fission. What is the change in mass and what is the energy produced - Which form of energy is the most importan with fission? Is it radiation or some other form of energy?

**2:** Calculate the binding energy per nucleon for 24 Mg by using a table or database for atomic mass excess.

**3:** What is the ratio between the nuclear binding energy and the electron binding energy for ^{23}Na when the ionisation potential of natrium is 5.14 V?

**4:** Use Einsteins formula and calculate the mass in MeV of the following particles:

- A neutron.
- A electron.
- The atomic mass unit “u”.

**5:** Calculate the average binding energy, given in MeV of the nucleons in the following nuclei:

^{40}Ca with mass 29.9627 u.^{56}Fe with mass 55.9352 u.^{208}Pb with mass 207.9775 u.

**6:** Assume that a ^{233}U nucleon fission and you get a ^{131}Xe nucleus and a ^{101}Ru nucleus and 3 netruons. What is the energy ?

- 235U: 40.916 MeV.
- 131Xe: -88.421 MeV.
- 101Ru: -87.952 MeV.
- neutron: 8.071 MeV.

**7:** Assume that by fission of uranium we get a energy of 200 MeV per nucleus. How far can you drive a car with 1 g of ^{235}U as fuel. When a car uses aproximatly, unless american, 1L of gasoline (density 0.70 g/cm^3) for every 10 km? The heat of burning for catan is 5500kj/mole and a gasoline engine can use 18% of the energy.

**8:** calculate the ammount of energy between a reaction of hydrogen and oxygen compare the energy with that of creation of He from neutrons and hydrogen (proton+electron).

DeltaG for H_2O is -237 kJ/mol and 0.0303 u is liberated when two protons two neutrons and two electronse fuse to a He-atom.

**9:** Determine if fusion of deuterium to helium gives more or less energy per gram than fission of uranium.

**10:** explain why we never find more than one stable nuclide in a isobarchain of odd nummber but in a isobarchain of even number it is possible to find more.

**11:** explain where we can find nuclides that desintergates with both beta+ and beta-. In addition explain why they have to be nuclei with odd proton and odd neutron.