Difference between revisions of "Radionuclide Generator"

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(Explanation and Exercise Guide)
 
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This lab exercise was developed for the [[Course_KJM_5911_-_Laboratory_Exercieses_in_Radio_Chemistry_(UiO)|UiO&nbsp;KJM 5911 course]]. The students will prepare a ion-exchange collumn using DOWEX-50 ion-exchange material and extract <sup>234</sup>Th from a <sup>234</sup>U solution. The thorium sticks to the ion exchanger and 1.17-min <sup>234</sup>Pa will grow inn. The column can be milked once every 12&nbsp;min. The students use <sup>234</sup>Pa samples to measure its half life.  
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The task in this Laboratory Exercise is to record a disintegration curve of <sup>234m</sup>Pa and from this curve determine the half-life of the nuclide. The <sup>234m</sup>Pa radionuclide is obtained from a generator system consisting of an ion exchanger column with fixed <sup>234</sup>Th where the daughter is milked by a liquid elution process. The &alpha; particles from the produced <sup>234m</sup>Pa-source is recorded by a GM-detector.  
  
Teaching goals:&nbsp;  
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==== Learning&nbsp;Goals  ====
  
*To learn about radionuclide generators,  
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*Understand mother-daughter relations and radioactive equilibrium
*working with short half lives,  
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*Understand how a radio-nuclide generator works and how it is used
*getting more training in handling radioactive material,  
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*Understand how radioactivity is "growing in"
*learing about ion-exchange collumns.
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*Training in handling radioactive material and safety procedures
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==== Explanation and Exercise Guide  ====
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'''Theory'''
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*Student Guide - [[Principle Behind Mother-Daughter Relationship]]
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'''Experimental procedure'''
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*Student guide - [[Preparing solutions for 234mPa radionuclide generator]]
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*Student guide - [[How to Make a 234mPa Radionuclide generator|making the <sup>234m</sup>Pa radionuklide generator]]
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*Student guide - [[How to Measure the Half Life of 234mPa|how to measure the half life of <sup>234m</sup>Pa - old fashion with GM-probe]]
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*Student guide - [[How to Measure the Half Life of 234mPa - with MCA system|how to measure the half life of <sup>234m</sup>Pa - using an MCA with NaI]]
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*Student&nbsp;guide - [[Determining the Half Life of 234mPa|determining the half life of <sup>234m</sup>Pa]]
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*Instructions to teachers and supervisors
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'''Other'''
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*[[Feed back on 234mPa/234Th Radionuclide Generator Lab Exercise|Experience and feed-back from teachers (please add yours also!)]]
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==== Equipment  ====
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*[https://us.vwr.com/stibo/hi_res/AA33257-Q9_11092007.pdf HCl (MSDS)] on 100 mL&nbsp;flasks, one for each student)
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*[http://www.gfschemicals.com/msdssearch/atn/MSDS%20US_English_DOWEX%C2%AE%2050WX4-200%2C%20CATION-EXCHANGE%20RESIN.pdf DOWEX 50x4 (MSDS)]&nbsp;(50-100 mesh)
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*[http://gerhardl.phpwebhosting.com/MSDS%20PDF/UV/Uranyl%20Nitrate.pdf Uranyl Nitrate (MSDS)] - UO<sub>2</sub>(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>
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*[http://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/20860.htm NaAc (MSDS)] + K<sub>4</sub>[Fe(CN)<sub>6</sub>] solution (on 100 mL flasks, one for each student) (prepared by mixing 8 g NaC<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and 40 g [http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927708 K<sub>4</sub>[Fe(CN)<sub>6</sub>] (MSDS)] in 1 L&nbsp;water)
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*5% [https://us.vwr.com/stibo/hi_res/EM1_00241_9029_11232009.PDF citric acid (MSDS)] (on 100 mL&nbsp;flasks, one for each student)
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*0.1 M&nbsp;[https://us.vwr.com/stibo/hi_res/RC697032_11152007.pdf AgNO<sub>3</sub> (MSDS)] (on 50 mL&nbsp;flasks)
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*Suitable columns which can be fitted with a stopper connected to a rubber ball so it can be pressurized (to quickly elute drops with short lived <sup>234</sup>Pa from the column).
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*Stop watches (one for each student)
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*Sample holders to catch eluted drops from the colund and which can be mounted conveniently in the detector chamber
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*Detectors - GM&nbsp;counters works well, but we have also used plastic scintillators mounted on PMTs and NaI-detectors. High efficiency is necessary to get good counting statistics even after the first 5-6 minutes.&nbsp;
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==== Safety Aspects  ====
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*Chemical safety - nothing particulary dangerous, 2 M&nbsp;HCl and 0.1 M&nbsp;AgNO3 should of course be handled according to normal safety precations.&nbsp;DOWEX residues and waste should be collected and handled according to normal procedures.
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*Rad. safety - very small amounts of uranyl nitrate is used, so rad. safety is mostly about regulations and not a real healt hazzard. Remember to collect the DOWEX&nbsp;from the ion-exchange collumns in separate containers as it is contaminated with 24-day <sup>234</sup>Th (will be none-radioactive after one year).
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[[Category:KJM5911]] [[Category:Courses]] [[Category:Laboratory_exercise]] [[Category:Radio_chemistry]] [[Category:Radionuclide_generator]] [[Category:Half_life]] [[Category:Master]]

Latest revision as of 20:34, 4 October 2012

The task in this Laboratory Exercise is to record a disintegration curve of 234mPa and from this curve determine the half-life of the nuclide. The 234mPa radionuclide is obtained from a generator system consisting of an ion exchanger column with fixed 234Th where the daughter is milked by a liquid elution process. The α particles from the produced 234mPa-source is recorded by a GM-detector.

Learning Goals

  • Understand mother-daughter relations and radioactive equilibrium
  • Understand how a radio-nuclide generator works and how it is used
  • Understand how radioactivity is "growing in"
  • Training in handling radioactive material and safety procedures

Explanation and Exercise Guide

Theory

Experimental procedure

Other

Equipment

  • HCl (MSDS) on 100 mL flasks, one for each student)
  • DOWEX 50x4 (MSDS) (50-100 mesh)
  • Uranyl Nitrate (MSDS) - UO2(NO3)2
  • NaAc (MSDS) + K4[Fe(CN)6] solution (on 100 mL flasks, one for each student) (prepared by mixing 8 g NaC2H3O2 and 40 g K4[Fe(CN)6 (MSDS)] in 1 L water)
  • 5% citric acid (MSDS) (on 100 mL flasks, one for each student)
  • 0.1 M AgNO3 (MSDS) (on 50 mL flasks)
  • Suitable columns which can be fitted with a stopper connected to a rubber ball so it can be pressurized (to quickly elute drops with short lived 234Pa from the column).
  • Stop watches (one for each student)
  • Sample holders to catch eluted drops from the colund and which can be mounted conveniently in the detector chamber
  • Detectors - GM counters works well, but we have also used plastic scintillators mounted on PMTs and NaI-detectors. High efficiency is necessary to get good counting statistics even after the first 5-6 minutes. 

Safety Aspects

  • Chemical safety - nothing particulary dangerous, 2 M HCl and 0.1 M AgNO3 should of course be handled according to normal safety precations. DOWEX residues and waste should be collected and handled according to normal procedures.
  • Rad. safety - very small amounts of uranyl nitrate is used, so rad. safety is mostly about regulations and not a real healt hazzard. Remember to collect the DOWEX from the ion-exchange collumns in separate containers as it is contaminated with 24-day 234Th (will be none-radioactive after one year).