# Difference between revisions of "Solutions 4"

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'''8:'''<br> | '''8:'''<br> | ||

− | <span class="texhtml">Δ''G'' = Δ''G''<sub>''p''''r''''o''''d''''u''''c''''t''</sub> - Δ''G''<sub>''r''''e''''a''''c''''t''''a''''n''''t''</sub> = - 237 ''k'''' | + | <span class="texhtml">Δ''G'' = Δ''G''<sub>''p''''r''''o''''d''''u''''c''''t''</sub> - Δ''G''<sub>''r''''e''''a''''c''''t''''a''''n''''t'''</sub>''' = - 237 ''k''''''<i>J</i> / ''m''''o''''l''</span>. Which means that for each H2O molecule it is generated 237kJ/NA = 2.456<math>\cdot</math>10<sup>-6</sup>MeV. Comparing to 0.0303 u = 23.2 MeV realesed by fusion to helium. We see that the nuclear reactions functions on a scale 10^6 times bigger than chemical.<br> |

− | <br> | + | <br> |

− | '''9:''' | + | '''9:''' |

− | fusion of <sup>2</sup>H gives 5.75<math>\cdot</math>10<sup>11</sup> J/gram approximately ten times as much energy per fusion than uranium which gives 8.2<math>\cdot</math>10<sup>10</sup> J/gram<br> | + | fusion of <sup>2</sup>H gives 5.75<math>\cdot</math>10<sup>11</sup> J/gram approximately ten times as much energy per fusion than uranium which gives 8.2<math>\cdot</math>10<sup>10</sup> J/gram<br> |

− | '''10:''' | + | '''10:''' |

In this problem it is usful to keep in mind the binding energy equation:<br> | In this problem it is usful to keep in mind the binding energy equation:<br> | ||

− | <math> | + | <math>B_{tot}(A,Z)=a_{v}A-a_{s}A^{2/3}-a_{c}\frac{Z^{2}}{A^{1/3}}-a_{a}\frac{A-2Z}{A}\pm\delta</math> |

+ | |||

+ | Most isobars (A= constant, Z varies) will have binding energy when plotted as a function of Z creating a parable. The last part of the equation in the formula for binding energy delta expresses the energy gained when the proton and/or the neutron are in a couple. A nucleus with a even amount of both will have a posetive delta, higher binding energy, a unpaired nucleus either proton or neutron will have a delta of zero, a nucleus with a unpaired neutron and proton will have a negative delta. Therefore for odd-nuclei the binding energy is independent of which nucleon is unpaired. The binding energy as a function of z will have a minimum value for a certain stable nucleus. For even nuclei with a given A value they will have a even-even, or a odd-odd konfiguration when Z varies. This will create two curves where the odd-odd nuclei will have a lower binding energy than the even-even nuclei. Odd-odd nuclei will therefore have more possibilities when decaying to a level with higher binding energy, either with a <math>\beta^{-}</math>decay or a <math>\beta^{+}</math> decay. Both of these mechanisms will lead to a more stable nucleus. | ||

+ | |||

+ | '''11:''' answered above <br><br> | ||

<br><br> | <br><br> |

## Revision as of 16:31, 18 June 2012

**1: **

Mass excess is given by deltaM(Z,A) = M(Z,A)-A. The masses can therefore be found with M(Z,A) = delta M (Z,A ) + A by using 1 u = 931.5 MeV we get:

- M(n) = 1.008665 u
- M(1H) = 1.007825 u
- M(4He) = 4.002603 u
- M(56Fe) = 55.934938 u
- M(142Ce) = 141.909244 u
- M(238U) = 238.050788 u

- The most stable nuclei is
^{56}Fe. It has the highest binding energy compared to the number of nucleons. - 1.00 kg
^{2}H is 496.5 mol by fusion 248,2 mol^{4}He is created which is 993.6 g. The difference in mass is equal to the energy 1000 g-993.6 g = 6.36 g. The energy is then 5.7 10^{14}J, 3.56 10^{27}MeV or 1.59 10^{8}kWh. - 1.00 kg
^{233}U fission to^{92}Rb,^{138}Cs and three neutrons. The mass difference is 0.785 g. Which gives 7,1 10^{13}J, 4.40 10^{26}MeV or 1.96 10^{7}kWh. - The energy from the fission is distributed in different ways: most of it goes to the kinetic energy of for the fission products. Other parts goes to the kinetic energy of the neutrinos and the neutrons, and some of it goes to “prompt” gamma-rays and beta/gamma rays from the fission products.

**2: **

binding energy B per nucleon:

It is 0.00868 u per nucleon

and 8.26 MeV per nucleon

**3:**

**4:**

- M(n) = 939.6 MeV.
- M(e) = 0.511 MeV.

- M("u") = 931.5 MeV.

**5:**

- 8.55 MeV/nucleon.

- 8.79 MeV/nucleon.

- 7.86 MeV/nucleon.

**6:** The energy

M(^{235}U) - (M(^{131}Xe + M(^{101}Ru) + 3M(n)) =

(ΔM(^{235}U) + 235) - (Δ(^{131}Xe) + 131) - (ΔM(^{101}Ru) + 101) - 3(ΔM(m) + 1)

= ΔM(^{235}U) - ΔM(^{131}Xe) - ΔM(^{101}Ru) - 3ΔM(n)

=40.916 + 88.421 + 87.952 - 3 8.071 = 193.08 Mev

**7:**

Energy usage per 10 km:

1 L = 700 g. M_{m}(C_{8}H_{18}) = 114 g/mol, this means that 700 g is 6.14 mol.

6.14 mol

1 g ^{235}U=4.25 10^{-3} mol = 2.56 10^{21} atoms.

If all of the atoms fission and assuming 100% efficiency this will give 5.12^{29} eV = 8.22 10^{7}kJ. Which will last for 135190 km.

**8:**

Δ*G* = Δ*G*_{p'r'o'd'u'c't} - Δ*G*_{r'e'a'c't'a'n't}** = - 237 ****k'*** J / *m'

**o'**l

*. Which means that for each H2O molecule it is generated 237kJ/NA = 2.456*

10

^{-6}MeV. Comparing to 0.0303 u = 23.2 MeV realesed by fusion to helium. We see that the nuclear reactions functions on a scale 10^6 times bigger than chemical.

**9:**

fusion of ^{2}H gives 5.75 10^{11} J/gram approximately ten times as much energy per fusion than uranium which gives 8.2 10^{10} J/gram

**10:**

In this problem it is usful to keep in mind the binding energy equation:

Most isobars (A= constant, Z varies) will have binding energy when plotted as a function of Z creating a parable. The last part of the equation in the formula for binding energy delta expresses the energy gained when the proton and/or the neutron are in a couple. A nucleus with a even amount of both will have a posetive delta, higher binding energy, a unpaired nucleus either proton or neutron will have a delta of zero, a nucleus with a unpaired neutron and proton will have a negative delta. Therefore for odd-nuclei the binding energy is independent of which nucleon is unpaired. The binding energy as a function of z will have a minimum value for a certain stable nucleus. For even nuclei with a given A value they will have a even-even, or a odd-odd konfiguration when Z varies. This will create two curves where the odd-odd nuclei will have a lower binding energy than the even-even nuclei. Odd-odd nuclei will therefore have more possibilities when decaying to a level with higher binding energy, either with a

decay or a decay. Both of these mechanisms will lead to a more stable nucleus.**11:** answered above